A p-adic number is an extension of the field of rationals such
that congruences modulo powers of a fixed prime are related to proximity in the
so called "p-adic metric." . . . . . .

### Internet references

Wikipedia: p-adic
number

Mathworld: p-adic
Number

Fact archive:
P-adic

A. J. Baker 2007/08/12:
An
Introduction to p-adic Numbers and p-adic Analysis (pdf,
mirror) rigorously
develops a body of theorems.

David A. Madore 2000/12/07:
A first introduction
to p-adic numbers (pdf, mirror) is
a very well-done and simple introduction to the topic.

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Graeme McRae.